On 29 November 2023, Brazilian defense officials announced the deployment of military personnel to the town of Pacaraima, located in Roraima state along the Brazil-Venezuela border, to monitor security developments related to the longstanding Esequiba territorial dispute between Guyana and Venezuela. During the deployment, Brazilian military personnel will take part in “intensified defensive actions” ahead of a 3 December referendum scheduled to take place in Venezuela in which voters will be asked if Venezuela should annex the disputed territory currently administered by Guyana. Moreover, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is expected to announce a ruling for the Venezuelan government to cancel the referendum, as the Guyanese government and other countries in the region believe the outcome of the plebiscite could potentially escalate into offensive Venezuelan military operations in Guyana.