On 30 December 2023, the Ukrainian military launched a large-scale airstrike on the Russian city of Belgorod, located approximately 30 km (20 mi) from the Ukraine-Russia border. Officials in Moscow accused Ukraine of using several types of missiles, including Ukrainian Olkha and Czech-made Vampire rockets, during the attack. Russian officials also stated that most projectiles were shot down but falling debris caused damage and casualties in the city. Russian authorities accused the Ukrainian military of deliberately attacking civilians and using cluster munitions fitted to the missiles. The attack killed at least 24 individuals and left 108 others injured. The airstrike followed a significant Russian air assault across Ukraine overnight on 28-29 December that killed at least 31 people and injured more than 160 others.